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Latest Celexa News:
SSRI Antidepressants May Up Stroke Risk After Menopause
Published: Thursday, December 17th, 2009
Post-menopausal women taking
serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants have a small,
though statistically higher risk of stroke, according to a newly published
study. SSRIs include the drugs Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Lexapro, and Celexa.
Antidepressant use in the US has more than quintupled since
the early 1990s, and SSRIs have replaced older medications called tricyclic
antidepressants, which can be toxic the heart. According to a press release
announcing this latest study, SSRI antidepressants have fewer side effects in
general and are known to have aspirin-like effects on bleeding, which could
protect against clot-related cardiovascular disorders. But not much is known
about how SSRIs affect the heart. This is especially true in the case of
postmenopausal women, who are at increased risk for both heart disease and
The study, which was published in the December 14 Archives of
Internal Medicine, involved 136,000 participants in the
Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). None of
the women were taking antidepressants when they enrolled in the WHI.
The women included in the analysis had their first follow-up
visit either one or three years after enrolling in WHI. At that time, 5,500
women reported taking either tricyclic or SSRI antidepressants. After six years,
there was no association between antidepressant use and heart disease. However,
researchers did find that women taking SSRIs had a 45 percent increase in risk
of stroke and a 32 percent increase in risk of dying from any cause during
follow up, compared with nonusers. Use of older tricyclic antidepressants wasn’t
linked to stroke, but it did increase by 67 percent the risk of death during
The authors of the study said it wasn’t clear if the
increased risk was the result of antidepressants or depression itself.
Depression is a known risk factor for cardiovascular problems.
“There are a lot of things this study couldn’t tell us, such
as whether this risk truly is attributable to the drugs and not to depression
itself and whether participants were being treated for depression or for
anxiety, which also has cardiovascular risks,” Jordan W. Smoller, MD, ScD, of
the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Department of Psychiatry, the study’s
lead author, said in a press release. “We also don’t know whether there is any
similar association in younger women or in men, since they were not part of this
The authors of the study called for more research into the
relationship between antidepressants and death.
Read Celexa side effects defined.
Note: These Celexa side effects may also be Celexa withdrawal side effects. Click here
August 2, 2007 - DNA breakthrough
predicting adverse reactions or effectiveness with taking Celexa. Research
scientists are continuing to unravel what antidepressants are doing within the
body but more importantly, predicting the onset of adverse reactions. With the
vast majority of individuals reacting to Celexa with adverse reactions, the
prediction of who will react and how quickly they will react needs to be
It is known, all people will react
to Celexa in a negative manner at some point in time but who will react as soon
as they take the medication, usually within one week. The goal of science or the
pharmaceutical company is to design a drug specifically for the masses, but it
is known, without question, that will not happen with with this new DNA
Celexa hydrobromide is a highly selective and potent serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor with minimal effects on the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). The ability
of Celexa to potentiate serotonergic activity in the central nervous system via inhibition of the neuronal reuptake of
serotonin is thought to be responsible for its antidepressant action. Tolerance to the inhibition of serotonin reuptake is not induced by long term (14 days) treatment of rats with
Celexa has no or very low affinity for a series of receptors including serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, dopamine D1, and D2, a1-, a2-, b-adrenergic, histamine H1, muscarinic
cholinergic, benzodiazepine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid receptors.
Following the administration of a single oral dose of Celexa (40 mg) to healthy male volunteers, peak blood levels occurred at about 4 hours (range 1 to 6 hours). The absolute bioavailability of
Celexa was about 80% (range 52 to 93%) relative to an intravenous dose. Absorption was not affected by food.
After intravenous infusion in healthy male volunteers the apparent volume of distribution (Vd)b was about 12 L/kg (range 9-17 L/kg), indicating a pronounced tissue distribution: (Vd)b oral was about 17 L/kg (range 14-17 L/kg). The binding of
Celexa and its
demethylated metabolites to human plasma proteins is about 80%.
The single- and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of Celexa are linear and dose proportional in a dose range of 10 to 60 mg/day. Steady-state plasma levels are achieved in patients in 1-2 weeks. At a daily dose of 40 mg, the average plasma concentration is about 83 ng/mL (n=114) with a range from 30 to 200 ng/mL.
Celexa does not
accumulate during long term treatment. A clear relationship between Celexa plasma levels and therapeutic response or side effects has not been established.
is metabolized in the liver to demethylCelexa (DCT), didemethylCelexa
(DDCT), Celexa N-oxide and a deaninated propionic acid derivative. In vitro studies show that DCT, DDCT and
Celexa-N-oxide also inhibit the neuronal reuptake of serotonin but are less selective and less potent than the parent compound
and are of minor clinical importance. Unchanged Celexa is the predominant compound in plasma. In vitro studies indicated that the biotransformation of
Celexa to its demethyl metabolites depends on both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, with a small contribution from CYP2D6.
The elimination half life of Celexa (t1/2b) is approximately 37 hours (range 30-42 hours) which allows recommendation of once-daily dosing. The systemic
Celexa plasma clearance (Cl5) is 0.33 L/min. Celexa
is eliminated primarily via the liver (85%) and the remainder via the
kidneys; approximately 12% (range 6-21%) of the daily dose is excreted in urine as unchanged
Elderly patients (4 males and 7 females aged 73-90 years), received a 20 mg/day dose of
Celexa for 3-4 weeks. In the elderly, steady state plasma levels were elevated (106 ng/mL), half-life prolonged (1.5-3.75 days) and clearance decreased (0.08-0.3 L/min). Elevation of
Celexa plasma levels occurred at an earlier age in females
than in males, In this population, lower doses and a lower maximum dose of
Celexa are recommended.
Reduced Hepatic Function The pharmacokinetics of Celexa were compared in patients with reduced hepatic function (3 female and 6 male patients aged 41-60 years) to those seen in 12 healthy male volunteers (aged 21-43 years), In patients with reduced hepatic function the half-life of
Celexa was approximately doubled (83 hours versus 37 hours), steady state
Celexa concentrations increased by 61% and oral clearance decreased by 37%. Consequently the use of
Celexa in patients with reduced hepatic function should be approached with caution and lower maximal doses should be prescribed (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Reduced Renal Function
In patients with mild to moderate reduction of the renal function (4 females and 3 males, aged 30-55 years),
Celexa was being eliminated more slowly than in 12 healthy male volunteers (aged 21-43 years), half-lives being 49 hours versus 37 hours. However, mild to moderate renal impairment had no major influence on the kinetics of
Celexa. At present, no information is available for chronic treatment of patients with severely reduced renal function (creatinine clearance <20 mL/min).
Celexa hydrobromide is indicated for the symptomatic relief of depressive illness.
The relapse rate was significantly lower in
Celexa-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients in two placebo-controlled studies, that were conducted over a 24-week period in patients who responded to 6 or 8 weeks of acute treatment with
Celexa (see CLINICAL TRIALS under ACTION AND
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.) Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use Celexa for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Celexa hydrobromide is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to
Celexa hydrobromide or the excipients of the drug product.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
In patients, receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), there have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal, reactions including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes,
including extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued SSRI treatment and have been started on a MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling serotonin syndrome. Therefore, it is recommended that
Celexa should not be used in combination
with a MAOI or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with a MAOI. Similarly, at least 14 days should elapse after discontinuing
Celexa treatment before starting a MAOI.
The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in depression and may persist until remission occurs. Therefore, high risk patients should be closely supervised throughout therapy with
Celexa hydrobromide and consideration should be given to the possible need for hospitalization. In order to minimize the opportunity for overdosage,
prescription for Celexa should be written for the smallest quantity of drug consistent with good patient management.
Activation of Mania/Hypomania
In placebo-controlled trials with Celexa, some of which included patients with bipolar disorder, mania/hypomania was reported in 0.1% of 1027 patents treated with
Celexa versus none of the 426 patients treated with placebo. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with major affective
disorders treated with other marketed antidepressants. If a patient enters a manic phase,
Celexa should be discontinued.
has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. These patients were excluded from clinical studies during the premarketing testing of
Celexa. In clinical trials, seizures occurred in 0.25% of patients treated with
Celexa and in 0.23% patients treated with placebo. Like other antidepressants,
Celexa should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizure disorder.
Rarely, the occurrence of serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients receiving SSRIs. A combination of symptoms, possibly including agitation, confusion, tremor, myoclonus and hyperthermia, may indicate the development of this condition.
There have been rare postmarketing reports describing patients with weakness, hyperreflexia and incoordination, following the concomitant use of a SSRI and the antimigraine drug sumatriptan, a 5-HT1 agonist. Such interaction should be considered if
Celexa is to be used in combination with a 5-HT1 agonist.
Hyponatremia and SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) have been reported with
Celexa use as a rare adverse event.
Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers
The safety of Celexa during pregnancy and lactation has not been established. Therefore,
Celexa should not be used during pregnancy, unless, in the opinion of the physician, the expected benefits to the patient markedly outweigh the possible hazards to the fetus.
Celexa is excreted in human milk. Celexa should not be
administered to nursing mothers unless, in the opinion of the treating physician, the expected benefits to the patient markedly outweigh the possible hazards to the child.
Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 have not been established.
In premarketing clinical trials, 800 elderly patients (>=65 years of age) have been treated with
Celexa. Of these patients 298 were >=75 years old. In a pharmacokinetic study (n=11, age 73 to 90 years), clearance was substantially decreased and half-life prolonged (see PHARMACOKINETICS). In a 6-week
placebo-controlled study, approximately equal numbers of patients received
Celexa at 20 or 30 mg per day, as the final dose. In about 5% of patients, the final dose was 10 mg per day (see CLINICAL TRIALS). Consequently, elderly patients should be administered lower doses and a lower maximum dose.
Celexa clearance was significantly decreased and plasma concentrations, as well as elimination half-life significantly increased (see PHARMACOKINETICS). Consequently, the use of
Celexa in hepatically impaired patients should be approached with caution and a lower maximum dosage is recommended.
No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. To date, no information is available on the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic effects of
Celexa in patients with severely reduced renal function (creatinine clearance <20 mL/min).
Use in Patients with Cardiac Disease
has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were generally excluded from clinical trials during the drugs premarketing assessment. However, the electrocardiograms of patients, who received
in clinical trials,
indicate that Celexa was not associated with the development of clinically significant ECG abnormalities.
In clinical trials, Celexa caused small but statistically significant decreases in heart rate (see ECG under ADVERSE REACTIONS) Consequently, caution should be observed when
Celexa is initiated in patients with pre-existing slow heart rate.
Use in Diabetic Patients
has not been systematically evaluated in diabetic patients since diabetes constituted an exclusion criterion. Although 13 patients did receive insulin during the studies, this number is too small to determine whether
Celexa affects the response to insulin. Rare events of hypoglycemia were reported.
should be used
with caution in diabetic patients on insulin or other antidiabetic drugs.
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
In studies in normal volunteers, Celexa in doses of 40 mg/day did not impair cognitive function or psychomotor performance. However, psychotropic medications may impair
judgment, thinking or motor skills. Consequently, patients should be cautioned against driving a car or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably
certain that Celexa does not affect them adversely.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
The safety and efficacy of the concurrent use of Celexa and ECT have not been studied.
After 8 weeks of treatment with Celexa, abrupt discontinuation of treatment caused a higher incidence of anxiety, emotional indifference, impaired concentration, headache, migraine, paresthesia, and tremor than was seen in patients who continued on
Celexa. These symptoms are not indicative of addiction.
Although it is not known whether gradual discontinuation will prevent the discontinuation symptoms, it is recommended that the dosage of
Celexa should be tapered off over 1 to 2 weeks.
Additional Adverse Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of
Celexa Back to top of page
The events listed below include all adverse events that were reported in the overall development program of
Celexa (n=3652). All reported events are included except those already listed in Table 1 and those events which occurred in only one patient. It is important to emphasize that, although the events reported occurred during
treatment with Celexa, they were not necessarily caused by it. The events are enumerated using the following criteria: frequent: adverse events that occurred on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent: adverse events that occurred in less than 1/100 patients but at least in 1/1000 patients; rare:
adverse events that occurred in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Body as a Whole - General Disorders Frequent: Influenza-like symptoms, nonpathological trauma, pain. Infrequent: Alcohol intolerance, allergic reaction, allergy, chest pain, edema, hot flushes, leg pain, malaise. rigors, syncope. Rare: Peripheral edema, sudden death, traumatic injury.
It is estimated that approximately 8 million patients have been treated with
Celexa since market introduction. The following adverse events have been reported to be temporarily associated with
Celexa treatment in at least 3 patients and are not described elsewhere in labeling.
Apothous Stomatitis – Painful red and swollen open
sores on a mucus membrane of the mouth commonly called a canker sore.
Ataxia – Loss of the ability to move the body with
Arterial Fibrillation – A condition of abnormal
twitching of the muscles in the blood vessels that moves the oxygenated
blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The unusual twitching is
rapid and irregular and replaces the normal rhythm of contraction of the
muscle, which sometimes causes a lack of circulation and pulse.
Blood Cholesterol Increased – An abnormal condition
where there is a greater amount in the blood of the oily/fatty substances
known as cholesterol. Cholesterol is a necessary part of living cells
(along with proteins and carbohydrates). Because cholesterol only slightly
dissolves in water, it can build up on the walls of the blood vessels,
therefore blocking/decreasing the amount of blood flow, which causes blood
pressure to go up. If not corrected, this condition is associated with
coronary artery disease.
Blood Creatinine Increased – A greater than normal
number of creatinine or muscular chemical waste molecules in the blood.
Creatinine plays a major role in energy production in muscles. Since
creatinine levels are normally maintained by the kidneys, Blood Creatinine
Increased is an indicator of kidney malfunction or failure.
Blood in Stool – The blood that is in your bowel
movement usually comes from any place along your digestive tract (from your
mouth to your anus). The stool can appear black and foul-smelling (usually
from the upper part of your digestive tract) or red or maroon-colored
(usually from the large intestine area). Hemorrhoids are the usual cause
for blood in the bowels.
8.Bundle Branch Block Right – These are specialized cells in the
upper right heart chamber and are the heart’s pacemaker. They send electrical
signals to the heart that keeps it beating or contracting regularly. Normally
the signal goes to the lower heart chambers at the same time through the bundle
of His (hiss) on both the left and right sides of the heart, so the lower
chambers contract at the same time. When the bundle is damaged on the right
side, the signal does not fire at the same time as the left, which changes the
pace of blood flow. This can lead to a person fainting.
Cardiac Failure – A heart disorder where the heart
does not function as usual and may completely stop working.
Cardiac Failure Congestive – The body is asking for
the heart to supply more blood than it is capable of producing and
maintaining. Normally, a body can tolerate an increased amount of work for
quite some time. The condition is characterized by weakness, shortness of
breath, and a fluid build-up in the body tissues causing swelling.
Cold Sweat – The skin is clammy and moist and you feel
chilled. This is a reaction to a shock or pain as well as to fear and
Colitis – A condition where the large intestine
becomes irritated from the use of the drug.
Coronary Artery Disease – A condition where the blood
vessels that mainly carry the blood away from the heart become clogged up or
narrowed usually by fatty deposits. The first symptom is pain spreading
from the upper left body caused by not enough oxygen reaching the heart.
Dehydration – An extreme loss of water from the body
or the organs of the body as in sickness or not drinking enough fluids.
Diplopia – The condition where a person is looking a
one object and instead of normally seeing just the one object he sees two.
This is also call double vision.
Diverticulitis – There are pouches or sacs on the
inside of the intestines that look like fingers. This increases the area
for the body to absorb nutrients as they pass through the intestines. These
sacs become irritated and swollen and end up trapping waste that would
normally be eliminated, causing pain and constipation.
Dysarthria – The inability to control the mouth
muscles when forming words so the words are not clearly spoken and heard.
Dyslipidemia – The normal fat metabolism in the blood
is interfered with.
Dysphagia – Trouble swallowing or the inability to
Ecchymosis – When a blood vessel breaks and creates a
purple discoloration of the skin.
Edema – An abnormal build up of excess fluids in the
cells, tissues, and the spaces between the tissues creating swelling.
Edema Peripheral – The abnormal build up of fluids in
the tissues of the ankles and legs causing painless swelling in the legs,
ankles, and feet. If you squeeze the swollen area it leaves an indentation
on the skin for a few minutes.
Ejaculation Delayed – The man is not able to release
sperm either during sexual intercourse or with manual stimulation in the
presence of his sexual partner in spite of his wish to do so.
Ejaculation Dysfunction – A condition where the man
has one or more of the following symptoms: He is not able to have an
erection, not able to have an orgasm, has a decreased interest in sex, is
sexually inhibited, or it is painful to ejaculate sperm.
Erectile Dysfunction – Incapable of having sexual
intercourse. Even though a man desires sex he is inhibited in his sexual
activity and is unable to have or maintain an erection of the penis.
Erythema – a skin redness caused by the swelling with
blood of the tiny blood vessels of the skin as in burns.
Erythematous Rash – Redness of the skin from the
swelling of the tiny blood vessels with skin irritation (itching, burning,
tingling, pain) and breakouts (eruptions).
Esophageal Stenosis Acquired – The tube that moves
food from the mouth to the stomach narrows.
Exfoliative Dermatitis – The unusual and not normal
condition of scaling and shedding of the skin cells. The skin is usually
Face Edema – The tissues of the face become swollen.
Feeling Jittery – A physical sensation of nervous
Gastric Irritation – An inflamed and sore stomach.
Gastric Ulcer – An open, irritated, and infected sore
in the wall of the stomach.
Gingivitis – Sore, swollen and red gums in the mouth
that bleed easily.
Glaucoma – The delicate nerve to the eye, the optic
nerve, becomes easily damaged with the build-up of excess fluid pressure
within the eyeball. The first sign of glaucoma is loss of peripheral (side)
vision. It can progress to total blindness.
Hepatic Steatosis – Excessive amounts of fat in the
Hyperhidrosis – The triggering of an excess of sweat
being produced on the soles of the feet, the palms, or the underarms which
can cause embarrassment or losing grip on a pen or other items.
Hyperkeratosis – An abnormal enlargement of the skin
tissues causing the skin cells to increase in size.
Hyperlipidemia – An abnormally high number of fat
cells in the blood.
Hypertriglyceridemia – Too many triglycerides in the
Triglycerides are three fatty
acids bound together in one molecule stored by the body and available to create
high levels of energy when used.
Hypoesthesia – A partial loss of sensation or general
loss of awareness.
Impaired Gastric Emptying – The contents of the
stomach are not passed into the intestines as normal due to the stomach
losing the muscular strength to do so.
Increased White Blood cell Count – This is an increase
in the number of cells in the blood that are responsible for the removal of
bacteria and other unwanted particles. They fight disease and infection by
enclosing foreign particles and removing them. An example of a disease that
would increase white blood cell count would be Leukemia.
Insomnia – Not able to fall asleep or sleeping for a
shorter time than desired, thus not being able to properly rest and feeling
un-refreshed. As a result, a person can become irritable, have difficulty
concentrating and feel a lack of energy. This can be caused by stimulants
such as by caffeine or drugs or by mental anxiety and stress. Mental stress
can be communicated and relieved.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome – A painful condition where
the either the muscles or the nerves of the lower intestines, are not
responding normally. This results in an alternating condition of diarrhea
followed by constipation, back and forth.
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca – A condition where the
outer coating of the eyeball is dry because of a decrease in the normal
amount of tears in the eye. As a result, the eyeball and inside of the
eyelid thickens and hardens sometimes causing the vision to be less sharp.
Leukopenia – An unnaturally low number of white blood
cells circulating in the blood.
Loose Stools – The bowel movement is runny instead of
Lower Abdominal Pain – A hurtful irritation of the
nerve endings in the area of the hipbones housing the lower digestive
tract. Pain usually means tissue damage.
Lymphadenopathy – The lymph nodes, where the immune
cells are located, become larger than is normal because of a high
concentration of white blood cells.
Macular Degeneration – The gradual loss of central
vision, which is the sharpest vision while peripheral eyesight, is
Maculopathy – An abnormal condition of the yellow spot
of the eye, which is located in the center of the inner lining of the
eyeball and connected to the main nerve to the eye and is responsible for
Mania – Unusually irrational, excessive and/or
exaggerated behavior or moods ranging from enthusiasm, sexuality, gaiety,
impulsiveness and irritability to violence.
Melena – Abnormally darkly colored stools as a result
of hemorrhaging in the digestive tract where the blood has interacted with
the digestive juices creating the dark color in the bowel movement.
Micturition Urgency – A sudden desire to urinate
usually followed by leakage.
Mood Swings – An emotional shifting as from a state of
happiness to a state of depression for a period of time.
Myocardial Infarction – The blood going to the heart
is delayed or stopped causing middle muscle tissue in the heart wall to die.
Nasopharyngitis – Irritation, redness and swelling
tissues in the nose and the tube leading from the mouth to the voice box as
well as the tubes leading to the ears.
Nephropathy – An abnormally functioning or diseased
Nervousness – Jumpy, jittery, anxious, and troubled
with an irritable temperament.
Night Sweats – The water-salt, waste product the skin
releases is called sweat or perspiration. With night sweats you become
wide awake in the middle of the night shivering and cold and wet with your
sheets/pajamas soaked in perspiration making it difficult to go back to
Nightmare – Dreams that make you afraid or leave
feelings of fear, terror, and upset long after waking up.
Orgasm Abnormal – Unable to have an orgasm with normal
Oropharyngeal Swelling – A swelling in the area from
the soft part of the roof of the mouth to the back of the mouth.
Pain in Extremity – A painful feeling in the legs,
arms, hands, and feet.
Pharyngolaryngeal Pain – Pain in the area of the
respiratory tract (organs of breathing) from the throat to the voice box and
above the windpipe.
Photopsia – A condition where a person see lights,
sparks or colors in front of your eyes.
Photosensitivity Reaction – An exaggerated sunburn
reaction that is not normal in proportion to the amount of exposure to the
Pollakiuria – Urinating much more frequently than
normal – as often as once every five to fifteen minutes.
Pressure of Speech – A condition where the individual
cannot voice his ideas fast enough with the pressure of there being not
enough time to say it.
Pruritic Rash – Extremely itchy, red, swollen bumps on
Pyrexia – Fever or the increase in body temperature
that is usually a sign of infection.
Retinal Detachment – The thin layer lining the back of
the eyeball (the retina) detaches from the back of the eyeball. This thin
layer is like the film of a camera because it sends the images a person
views to the brain. When it detaches it causes a reduced ability to see.
Rigors – Shivering or shaking of the body as if
chilled, preventing normal responses.
Skin Ulcer – An open sore or infected skin eruption
with swelling, redness, pus, and irritation.
Sleep Disorder – These are a list of sleep disorders
such as teeth grinding, insomnia, jet lag, sleep walking, abnormally falling
asleep during the middle of a conversation after a full night’s rest,
uncontrolled body motions keeping one awake, etc.
Suicide, Completed – An attempted attack on oneself
that is life threatening results in death.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection – Where the organs
of breathing near the mouth such as the nose and sinuses, become infected
and are usually treated by antibiotics.
Urinary Hesitation – Hard to start or hard to continue
emptying one’s bladder.
Urinary Incontinence – Urinating without intending to
do so because of a weakening of the muscles in the hip area from the drug
affecting the nerves or the drug blocking a persons thinking process.
Urinary Retention – The inability to completely empty
the bladder despite having the urge to do so. This can lead to infections
or damage to the urinary organs.
Urine Flow Decreased – Dehydration of the body causing
a lesser flow of urine than normal with the body reabsorbing the waste.
Urine Output Decreased – A condition where the output
of urine produced in a 24-hour period is less than 500 ml.